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A Pedagogically Effective Use of an Audience Response System, TOPHAT™, to increase outcomes in Calculus I at New York University
McAlpin, E., Shilane, D., & Kalaycioglu, S. (2018). A Pedagogically Effective Use of an Audience Response System to Increase Outcomes in Mathematics. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 37(4), 1-32
Large foundational courses delivered in lecture halls are dis- advantaged in eliciting participation from all students and maintaining engagement throughout the class session. We introduced a question-driven method facilitated by an audience response system, namely TopHat™, that allows the instructor to engage students in solving Calculus problems across the entire class as well as provide uniform immediate feedback to both the students, and the instructor as an opportunity to reflect and remediate. In Fall 2016, we compared outcomes for students who solved problems facilitated by TopHat™ in one section (041) to those who solved problems using paper in another section (046). Results from statistical tests found the section (041) using a question-driven method facilitated by TopHat™ was associated with statistically significantly improved performance measures resulting in a 4.98% increase in final grades amounting to a half a letter grade difference, compared to the control section (046) solving problems facilitated with paper. The improvement in performance was driven by statistically significant differences on the homework assignments and midterm examinations in the section (041) us- ing TopHat™. The TopHat™ section (041) also scored higher on the final exam although not statistically significant average compared to section (046). Greater performances scores contributed to statistically significant final grade averages.
Dynamic versus Static Presentation Formats, do they impact performance differently? Calculus I at New York University
McAlpin, E., Shilane, D., & Kalaycioglu, S. (2019). Dynamic Versus Static Presentation Formats, Do They Impact Performance Differently? Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 38(1), 49-76
Video is often perceived as an effective choice to deliver demonstrations and lecture content but rarely assessed on the impact of student learning in mathematics in higher education. We compared weekly outcomes for students who accessed interactive video modules (DYNAMIC) demonstrating calculus level 1 topics to students who accessed the same content but presented in printed text and static image format (STATIC). Students in two sections of undergraduate course Calculus 1 (011) and (001) alternated each week pre-class work material presented in either interactive video module or text-image document and were assessed at the end of each week with a quiz. While there is a sectional difference in performance on quiz scores favoring Section 011 for specific weeks (4, 5, 11, 15) there is no overall difference between the sections on presentation formats. For weeks (3, 4, 5, 8, 11, and 15) there was a significant difference in Quiz Scores by Section while adjusting for diagnostic pre-measures but the sections benefiting from one format over another varied. The Partial Eta Squared value indicates the effect size and compared with Cohen’s guidelines (0.2-small effect, 0.5-moderate effect, 0.8-large effect). For section the effect size for all weeks is small. Despite differences in these specific weeks, overall the differences do not favor one presentation format over another. Given the low R2 values the results suggest that the presentation format did not impact delayed quiz scores in terms of weekly quiz performances by week or aggregated overall.
A Multiyear Comparative Study on Flipping a Dental Hygiene Course
Sefo, D., Birenz, S., McAlpin, E., Shilane, D. (2019).
The flipped classroom model changes the learning dynamic from an instructor-centered design to a student-centered design whereby the student has more opportunities for practice with guidance and feedback from the instructor. The present study is an investigation on the impact of employing the features of a flipped educational model compared with a traditional model on student course grades across several years. Few studies investigated the impact of the model on courses in dental hygiene covering the topic of clinical applications and psychomotor skill development. In 2014, faculty from New York University Dentistry, initiated a redesign to the Principles of Dental Hygiene I pre-clinic course to improve student learning as well as the administration of the course. The redesign process was completed in 2016 for implementation in 2017. We compared outcomes on performance measures (e.g., grades for quizzes, exams, and competencies) as well as overall course grades for students who engaged in a traditional model of the course to students who engaged in a flipped model of the course. This study provides aggregated results comparing the traditional year (2014) to flipped years (2017-2019) as well as individual pairwise comparisons. Descriptive statistics revealed higher averages on most performance measures and course grades for students in the flipped model over consecutive years (2017-2019) compared to the 2014 traditional model. T-test results comparing the traditional baseline to aggregate flipped years showed statistical significance for overall Course Grade and near transfer tests (Quizzes and Instrumentation Competencies) but not far transfer tests (Instrumentation Assessments and Final Exams). Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on Course Grade yielded significant variation among individual flipped versus the traditional year, F (3, 250) = 5.43, p=.001. Post hoc Tukey pairwise tests showed statistically significant course grade averages for individual flipped years 2017 and 2019 compared to 2014 but not for 2018 compared to 2014. Post hoc Tukey pairwise test showed mixed results for specific performance measures aimed at assessing types of learning such as cognitive and psychomotor skills. The flipped method showed higher outcomes overall compared to the traditional method. To overcome limitations we compared results over consecutive years and will continue to monitor the outcomes to confirm these results. Future studies will aim to test new teaching and learning strategies on the specific performance measures aimed at types of learning in order to increase averages and provide more stable results.